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Вакцинация против SARS-CoV-2 при ревматических заболеваниях: вопросы безопасности

https://doi.org/10.47360/1995-4484-2022-21-31

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Аннотация

Проблема коронавирусной болезни 2019 (COVID-19, coronavirus disease 2019) спустя два года по-прежнему остается актуальной как в социальном, так и в медицинском плане. В качестве одного из методов борьбы с текущей пандемией COVID-19 большинство экспертов делают ставку на широкое использование вакцинации. Однако применение вакцин против SARS-CoV-2 у больных ревматическими заболеваниями (РЗ) поднимает ряд вопросов, связанных с эффективностью, иммуногенностью, а также с безопасностью иммунизации, включая нивелирование рисков обострения основного заболевания или развития новых аутоиммунных феноменов. Исходя из этого весьма важен анализ данных по вышеназванным аспектам в режиме реального времени, особенно с учетом того, что пациенты ревматологического круга были исключены из программ клинической разработки вакцин против SARS-CoV-2. В настоящем обзоре представлены результаты исследований последнего года по проблеме безопасности вакцинации против COVID-19 у больных РЗ. Дана краткая характеристика основных антиковидных вакцин. Поствакцинальные нежелательные явления были достаточно частыми после первой, второй или обеих доз вакцин у пациентов с РЗ, что согласуется с данными, полученными в общей популяции. В целом частота обострения РЗ после вакцинации против COVID-19 представляется достаточно низкой (5–7%) и не имеет статистически значимых ассоциаций с конкретной вакциной или проводимой противоревматической терапией. В то же время однозначная интерпретация этих данных затруднена как минимум по трем причинам: а) во многих исследованиях учитывались только симптомы, развивающиеся после первой дозы вакцины; б) ограниченный во времени поствакцинальный период наблюдения; в) значительные расхождения в трактовке обострений заболевания. В рамках рассматриваемой проблемы имеются еще очень много вопросов, ответы на которые должны быть получены в крупных проспективных контролируемых исследованиях.

Об авторах

Б. С. Белов
ФГБНУ «Научно-исследовательский институт ревматологии им. В.А. Насоновой»
Россия

Белов Борис Сергеевич

115522, Москва, Каширское шоссе, 34а

 


Конфликт интересов:

нет



А. М. Лила
ФГБНУ «Научно-исследовательский институт ревматологии им. В.А. Насоновой»; ФГБОУ ДПО «Российская медицинская академия непрерывного профессионального образования» Минздрава России
Россия

115522, Москва, Каширское шоссе, 34а

125993, Москва, ул. Баррикадная, 2/1, стр. 1


Конфликт интересов:

нет



Е. Л. Насонов
ФГБНУ «Научно-исследовательский институт ревматологии им. В.А. Насоновой»; ФГАОУ ВО «Первый Московский государственный медицинский университет имени И.М. Сеченова» Минздрава России (Сеченовский Университет)
Россия

115522, Москва, Каширское шоссе, 34а

119991, Москва, ул. Трубецкая, 8, стр. 2


Конфликт интересов:

нет



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Рецензия

Для цитирования:


Белов Б.С., Лила А.М., Насонов Е.Л. Вакцинация против SARS-CoV-2 при ревматических заболеваниях: вопросы безопасности. Научно-практическая ревматология. 2022;60(1):21–31. https://doi.org/10.47360/1995-4484-2022-21-31

For citation:


Belov B.S., Lila A.M., Nasonov E.L. Vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 in rheumatic diseases: Safety issues. Rheumatology Science and Practice. 2022;60(1):21–31. (In Russ.) https://doi.org/10.47360/1995-4484-2022-21-31

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ISSN 1995-4484 (Print)
ISSN 1995-4492 (Online)